Deuteronomy 19 begins a new section of the book (19:1 – 22:8) that begins by discussing laws related to the sixth commandment—You shall not murder (Exo. 20:13; Deut. 5:17). This chapter deals with three topics: the cities of refuge, the displacement of boundary markers, and the matter of witnesses. Moses asked the Israelites to set aside cities of refuge for those accused of killing a person accidentally. He also ordered execution for premeditated killing. Moses then warned the Israelites against moving the boundary mark of their neighbors, which might be considered bearing false witness and stealing. Lastly, he required two or more witnesses to convict someone of a crime. These measures were to ensure that the Israelites would live righteously before their Suzerain (Ruler) God, and see that justice is done among their fellow brethren, that the communities might live in harmony and mutual support.
Deuteronomy 19 can be outlined as follows:
-The Cities of Refuge (Deut. 19:1 – 13)
-Moving a Boundary Marker (Deut. 19:14)
-The Law Concerning Witnesses (Deut. 19:15 – 21)

Deuteronomy 19:1-3

The LORD, through Moses, commanded the Israelites to set apart three cities in the Promised Land to provide asylum for unintentional homicide.

Deuteronomy 19:4-7

Moses explained the purpose of setting aside the three cities of refuge in the Promised Land by providing a case in which one man goes into the forest with his friend to cut wood and accidentally kills him.

Deuteronomy 19:11-13

Moses then addressed the issue of someone guilty of premeditated killing (murder) fleeing to one of the cities of refuge. The murderer must be brought before the elders and then executed so that he might be removed from the Israelite community.

Deuteronomy 19:14

Moses warned the Israelites against moving the boundary mark of their neighbors, which their ancestors have set in the Promised Land.

Deuteronomy 19:15-21

Moses addressed the matter of witnesses and testimony in the Israelite community.

Deuteronomy 19:8-10

Moses told the Israelites to set aside three more cities of refuge in the Promised Land, besides the first three, if God enlarges their territory.