Ecclesiastes 1:1

One of the most fascinating books of Scripture, Ecclesiastes sets out on a difficult but foundational task—reconciling the human longing to discover and understand, to find meaning and purpose, with the practical realities of being a finite creature in a world created by an infinite being. What is discovered is that human reason and experience is inadequate to find purpose. If we rely solely on human reason and experience, we only find futility and madness. However, if we begin with faith, we can effectively use our human faculties to realize wisdom and fulfillment.
Ecclesiastes predicts the failure of human philosophy to discover purpose apart from faith, while offering a viable philosophical solution: to begin with faith.

The author, Qoholeth in Hebrew, or “Assembler,” is trying to make sense of life “under the sun.” It is widely believed “Qoholeth” is King Solomon, renowned for his wisdom. His goal is to synthesize philosophy with the practical world around him.

Solomon invites us on a great journey of discovery. If anyone could use reason to discover meaning through life experiences, it would be Solomon. Solomon’s great wealth meant he could use all his time toward his investigations. His unsurpassed wisdom allowed him the faculties to design a vast array of activities, as well as assess their results, and determine their meaning.

Solomon’s conclusion is dark but real: neither meaning nor purpose can be discerned through human reason and experience. As the rivers flow endlessly to the sea, so one life flows to the next. Without a foundation of faith, life has no meaning.

Solomon shares with us his experiments to find meaning through reason and experience. He tries achievement and engages in vast building projects. He tries every sort of pleasure and entertainment, spanning the full spectrum of wine, women, and song. He leaves no stone unturned, but finds nothing but futility. Solomon’s experience is summarized in one word: “hebel.” Hebel is Hebrew for “vaporous.” A fog, a mist. Something that is there but can’t be grasped. You see it for a moment, then it is gone. Such is a philosophy of life founded upon human reason and experience.

Ecclesiastes tackles the kinds of things we think about but do not often say. And likely do not wrestle with to the extent Solomon does. Utilizing a mix of imagery and direct description, the Book of Ecclesiastes is an honest attempt to reconcile life on this Earth with the mysteries of Heaven.

Ecclesiastes’s refusal to pull any punches has caused many to describe it as negative and depressing. But the truths discovered in this book are real. Reality might be an acquired taste, but Solomon urges us to see reality for what it is.

When Solomon sees reality firsthand, it causes him to turn to God, and find fulfillment. Life can be confusing and complicated. It can seem like we are living in a fog. We cannot gain clarity through our own efforts and experiences. But clarity can come if our starting place is faith in God. Solomon concludes with an exhortation that life’s fulfillment is found in following God’s ways, for it is He who will determine the meaning of all deeds in His final judgement.

The patient, teachable reader will discover truth, hope, and challenge within these chapters. In the end, it is a strange joy only found through full consideration of the mysteries of God.

The first chapter of Ecclesiastes introduces Solomon and his unique capacity to explore the meaning of life through human reason and experience. Even so, he is frustrated by his limitations, which leads to one of the most assertive statements in Scripture: “All is vanity.” Solomon then dives into the great question mankind must consider: What is the meaning of life and how does one constructively participate in it?

After establishing his authority and setting his thesis, Solomon sets out on an exploration of purpose. He wastes no time getting to the heart of the matter—that everything we do and experience on earth is an enigma, a paradox, a vapor that cannot be fully grasped or understood.

A poem highlights God’s creation compared to man’s labors—God is the Creator of purpose and meaning, but man cannot partner with God through reason and experience alone. All of Solomon’s efforts, including his greatest asset, wisdom, prove insufficient by themselves. He wrestles with the reality that God has made the world and the human life so mysterious. Even wisdom cannot resolve the mystery. Solomon’s circumstantial experience (and his reason), great as they are, are still insufficient.

Solomon introduces himself as the author of Ecclesiastes. He describes himself using three titles that uniquely qualify him to wrestle with the content of the book.

The first line of Ecclesiastes is precise, purposeful, and emphatic. The intention is not just to identify who is speaking but from what authority he teaches.

The word translated Preacher is the Hebrew “Qoholeth” and it literally means “one who assembles.” The designation is used only seven times in all of Scripture and all seven times are in the Book of Ecclesiastes. Since the Assembler here is imparting an array of wisdom and knowledge, “Qoholeth” is often translated as Teacher or Preacher.

The word “Ecclesiastes” is the Greek translation of “Qoholeth.” “Ekklesia” is usually translated “church” in the New Testament, but literally means “assembly.”

In Deuteronomy 31:10-11, Moses commanded that every seven years, the people would be assembled together to have the totality of the Torah (law) read to them. Perhaps Solomon is following this metaphorically, assembling these words to explore the mysteries of the Torah, a big picture treatment of the meaning of all Scripture.

It is widely believed Solomon is the author of Ecclesiastes. But it is interesting that the book begins (and ends) with a third-person description of Solomon: Preacher, Son of David and King of Jerusalem. A narrator introduces Solomon, then most of the book’s remainder is Solomon speaking in the first person.

Son of David is a reference to Solomon’s lineage. David was the first king of the Davidic dynasty. The King from whom the Messiah will descend. God’s favored and anointed one (Matthew 1:1-16). Solomon was the highest achieving son of David. He carried the nation to its greatest heights, inheriting the favor and prosperity of his father. Solomon was given a supernatural gift of wisdom, and his wisdom was renowned, sought far and wide (1 Kings 4:29-34). Ecclesiastes addresses the spiritual needs of the people of God, but also applies to all peoples. It addresses the human desire to make sense of the world we live in.

The beginning of Solomon’s reign was the height of the Jewish Nation’s political strength. Israel, its land, and alliances became the center of civilization during Solomon’s reign. Solomon writes the book of Ecclesiastes as the King, a position of maximum authority at this time of Jewish prosperity.

The investigations Solomon is about to recount will cover the entire range of human experience, including labor, relationships, agricultural and architectural pursuits, intellectual considerations, ruling and living in a kingdom. His role as King puts him in a position to have the experience necessary for this endeavor.

Solomon is historically renowned for wisdom. With all things offered to him by God, he asks for and is granted wisdom (2 Chronicles 1:7-12; 1 Kings 3). The Book of Ecclesiastes describes his journey in living with wisdom and exploring its effect. He is uniquely equipped for the discussion to come. He uniquely has the wealth, time, position, intellect, and insight to engage such an ambitious pursuit and find its conclusion.

Verse one establishes the moral, spiritual, and worldly authority of its author. The Preacher assembles with authority. The son of David speaks with the inheritance of God’s blessing. The King of Israel speaks with earthly authority and the resources of wealth and position. All are represented in Solomon, the “Qoholeth” (Assembler/Preacher).

Biblical Text
The words of the Preacher, son of David, King in Jerusalem.

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