One of the most fascinating books of Scripture, Ecclesiastes sets out on a difficult but foundational task—reconciling the human longing to discover and understand, to find meaning and purpose, with the practical realities of being a finite creature in a world created by an infinite being. What is discovered is that human reason and experience is inadequate to find purpose. If we rely solely on human reason and experience, we only find futility and madness. However, if we begin with faith, we can effectively use our human faculties to realize wisdom and fulfillment.
Ecclesiastes predicts the failure of human philosophy to discover purpose apart from faith, while offering a viable philosophical solution: to begin with faith.
The author, Qoholeth in Hebrew, or “Assembler,” is trying to make sense of life “under the sun.” It is widely believed “Qoholeth” is King Solomon, renowned for his wisdom. His goal is to synthesize philosophy with the practical world around him.
Solomon invites us on a great journey of discovery. If anyone could use reason to discover meaning through life experiences, it would be Solomon. Solomon’s great wealth meant he could use all his time toward his investigations. His unsurpassed wisdom allowed him the faculties to design a vast array of activities, as well as assess their results, and determine their meaning.
Solomon’s conclusion is dark but real: neither meaning nor purpose can be discerned through human reason and experience. As the rivers flow endlessly to the sea, so one life flows to the next. Without a foundation of faith, life has no meaning.
Solomon shares with us his experiments to find meaning through reason and experience. He tries achievement and engages in vast building projects. He tries every sort of pleasure and entertainment, spanning the full spectrum of wine, women, and song. He leaves no stone unturned, but finds nothing but futility. Solomon’s experience is summarized in one word: “hebel.” Hebel is Hebrew for “vaporous.” A fog, a mist. Something that is there but can’t be grasped. You see it for a moment, then it is gone. Such is a philosophy of life founded upon human reason and experience.
Ecclesiastes tackles the kinds of things we think about but do not often say. And likely do not wrestle with to the extent Solomon does. Utilizing a mix of imagery and direct description, the Book of Ecclesiastes is an honest attempt to reconcile life on this Earth with the mysteries of Heaven.
Ecclesiastes’s refusal to pull any punches has caused many to describe it as negative and depressing. But the truths discovered in this book are real. Reality might be an acquired taste, but Solomon urges us to see reality for what it is.
When Solomon sees reality firsthand, it causes him to turn to God, and find fulfillment. Life can be confusing and complicated. It can seem like we are living in a fog. We cannot gain clarity through our own efforts and experiences. But clarity can come if our starting place is faith in God. Solomon concludes with an exhortation that life’s fulfillment is found in following God’s ways, for it is He who will determine the meaning of all deeds in His final judgement.
The patient, teachable reader will discover truth, hope, and challenge within these chapters. In the end, it is a strange joy only found through full consideration of the mysteries of God.
In Chapter 6, Solomon talks about the consequences of squandering the gifts of God. These gifts are an opportunity to know God, to see the good, and to steward the existence He has granted us. If we waste this opportunity, we are worse off than the one lost at birth. We will give an account to God for the consequences of our decisions. We find meaning by beginning with an external focus, standing on a foundation bigger than ourselves—namely, the God and Creator of the universe. Attempting to understand existence apart from God is futile.
The mistake we too often make is in trying to understand the mysteries of God at the expense of stewarding what He has called us to steward. Trust and obey, rather than figure out and control, is the call of God to mankind. Our search for comprehensive understanding is frustrated by wide ranging enigmas involving incongruities and reversals in real life situations. If we attempt to gain meaning and purpose beginning with our own understanding, or through material possessions, it leads to madness and frustration. Nevertheless, when we begin with faith, Solomon determines, life can still be profitably experienced through wise living.