The three cycles of plagues were now complete. The land of the Egyptians, as well as their economy and way of life, lay in ruins. Suffering, fear, and utter discouragement must have been pervasive. Neither Pharaoh, his servants, nor his priests, could do anything to prevent it or control it in any way.


The account of the tenth (and last) plague on Egypt, the plague of death of the firstborn, is described in 11:1 through 12:36. Chapter 11 looks back to what has already happened and at the same time looks forward to what is about to happen.


Chapter 11 can be outlined as follows:

  • The Next Plague Told to Moses (11:1 – 3)
  • The Next Plague Told to Pharaoh (11:4 – 8)
  • Results of the Nine Plagues (11:9 – 10)

Exodus 11:1-3

Verses 1 – 3 contain the LORD’s resolve to bring the last and most serious plague. The nature of the plague was not specified here, just the aftermath of the plague. The LORD told Moses that the Israelites would not just be allowed to leave Egypt after this plague, they would be driven out altogether. The Egyptians are enthusiastic that the plagues stop by any means. They even give their Israelite neighbors their gold and silver to entice them to leave. Even Moses would be greatly admired by the Egyptian people, (possible exception being Pharaoh, who is omitted from the list).

Exodus 11:4-8

Verses 4 – 8 contain the message that Moses gave to Pharaoh concerning this last plague.

Exodus 11:9-10

Verses 9 – 10 are a parenthetical note in the account. In it, the LORD reviews and summarized what has happened since the beginning of the plagues in 7:8.