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Ecclesiastes Podcast

Exodus 14:1-4

The book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah (“law”). It continues the story of Genesis concerning the migration of the family of Jacob (the Israelites) to Egypt (Genesis 50). It describes the commissioning of Moses and Aaron as God’s representatives on earth to accomplish God’s deliverance of His people from slavery in Egypt and lead them to the Promised Land (the land of Canaan). It also relates the miraculous deliverance from Egypt beginning with the plagues on Egypt and the crossing of the Red Sea. It then describes the journey to Mount Sinai and the establishment of the Mosaic covenant with the Israelites. The last part of the book involves the specifications and building of the tabernacle – the place where the Lord Himself dwelt amongst His people.

In the book of Exodus, the focus shifts to the deliverance of God’s people.


This chapter describes what is one of the best-known events in the Scriptures, the crossing of the Red Sea. Having left Egypt, the Israelites were led by the LORD to a place where they were backed up against the Red Sea. He then caused the Egyptians to pursue them, and they caught up and surrounded the Israelites so that there was seemingly no means of escape. But then the LORD caused the waters to part, letting the Israelites cross to safety on the other side of the sea on dry land. He also agitated the Egyptian army to pursue the Israelites through the waters, only to have them crash down on them and kill them all. Thus, the Israelites believed in the LORD and feared Him and Moses His servant.

Chapter 14 can be outlines as follows:

  • The LORD’s Instructions to Moses (14:1 – 4)
  • The LORD’s Influence on Pharaoh to Pursue the Israelites (14:5 – 14)
  • The LORD’s Victory at the Red Sea (14:15 – 31)

In verses 1 – 4, the LORD told Moses to change direction and camp at a certain place beside the sea. He warned that Pharaoh will come after them to bring them back and enslave them once more. But it was really preparation for another mighty act of the LORD to show both the Egyptians and the Israelites that He is the sovereign Ruler of all.

The Israelites were camped at a place called Etham (13:20) when the Lord spoke to Moses.They were no doubt relieved to be out of Egyptian slavery and on their way to the Promised Land. They probably thought that they would continue to head southeast away from Egypt and away from bondage. However, the LORD told Moses to tell the sons of Israel to turn back and camp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you shall camp in front of Baal-zephon, opposite it, by the sea. The Hebrew word for “turn back” can also be translated “return,” and it implies that the LORD wanted them to go back toward Egypt and camp at a place called Pi-hahiroth, whose exact location is not known.

The LORD then said that the result of this U-turn is that Pharaoh will say of the sons of Israel, ‘They are wandering aimlessly in the land; the wilderness has shut them in.’ That is, the LORD was using this unusual tactic to deceive Pharaoh into thinking that the Israelites were confused, disoriented, afraid, and as a result very vulnerable to being recaptured. He would then be motivated to go after them.

Also, the LORD would also harden Pharaoh’s heart, just as He did in the plagues. Hardening his heart would cause him to be persistent in pursuing his true desire, and this stubbornness would encourage him to chase after them. But it would not result in the Israelite returning to Pharaoh’s service, as he wanted. Instead, the LORD said that He will be honored through Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord.

Pharaoh would depend on the Egyptian gods and goddesses to bring him victory and glory, but it would be the LORD that would bring glory and honor for Himself through His final deliverance of Israel at the Red Sea. They would know that the God of Israel is truly the sovereign One of creation and indeed all things.

In obedience to the word of the LORD, they did so. Moses guided the people to turn around and go back and camp at a place closer to Egypt, making them vulnerable to attack by Egypt.

Biblical Text

1 Now the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “Tell the sons of Israel to turn back and camp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you shall camp in front of Baal-zephon, opposite it, by the sea. For Pharaoh will say of the sons of Israel, ‘They are wandering aimlessly in the land; the wilderness has shut them in.’ Thus I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them; and I will be honored through Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord.” And they did so.