To many students of the book of Exodus, Exodus 24 is the climax of the book. The main topic in the chapter is Israel’s ratification of the covenant given by God to Moses in chapters 20 through 23. In a sense, the events in the first 23 chapters lead up to the Mosaic covenant ratification.

Chapter 24 can be outlined as follows:
The People Ratify the Covenant (24:1 – 11)
The People See a Display of the LORD’s Glory (24:12 – 18)

Exodus 24:1-3

The elders of Israel are called to come before the LORD for worship. Moses recounts the LORD’s ordinances to the people, who repeat their promise to obey.

Exodus 24:4-11

Moses and the elders are called to come before the LORD for worship. The covenant of the LORD is ratified.

Exodus 24:12-18

The covenant between the LORD and His people Israel has now been ratified. The LORD summoned Moses to the top of the mountain to receive stone tablets and commandments from Him. Moses alone entered the cloud, a visible sign of the LORD’s presence and glory that covered the mountain. The Israelites saw His glory in the form of something like fire.