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Romans 11:9-12 meaning

Israel has not been cast aside forever. They have sinned, but through their sin God is ushering the Gentiles into salvation. In part, God has done this to make the Israelites jealous, so they would remember their need for Him. Even so, God has worked Israel's transgression to richly benefit the Gentiles, and He will work to restore Israel to Himself. Imagine how much greater that restoration will be. God's sovereignty works the sin of man into blessings for the world and for Israel.

Paul quotes one of King David's psalms (Psalm 69:2-3) written against his enemies. Paul likens Israel's enmity toward God as being God's enemy. This is through Israel's rebellion in constructing their own righteousness through laws. 

Paul quotes: And David says, "Let their table become a snare and a trap, and a stumbling block and a retribution to them. Let their eyes be darkened to see not, and bend their backs forever (vv 9-10)

The stumbling block (which in this context is Christ, Romans 9:33) is not there for Israel's destruction. It is for their salvation, but they are stumbling over it. God has allowed Israel to be blind to Jesus as being their Messiah. He has allowed them to follow the Law (which cannot save anyone) and reject the author of the Law. He has allowed them to reject the person whom the Law was intended to reflect: Jesus.

Paul clearly explains that the Jews are in a state of rebellion, but this does not mean it will last forever: I say then, they did not stumble so as to fall, Did they? May it never be! But by their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles (v 11). 

Salvation has come to the Gentiles both to provide salvation to all people, and to provoke Israel to desire reconciliation with God (to make them jealous). 

But, Paul says in verse 12, if their transgression is bringing riches for the world and their failure is riches (salvation) for the Gentiles, and since God is not finished with Israel, we should take comfort in how much better the restoration of Israel will be when the Israelites finally return to God. How much more will their (Israel's) fulfillment be (v 12)

When Israel is restored, it is going to be greater than it was before. God has not rejected Israel, and He has rich plans for it, all in His sovereign design (Romans 8:28). When Israel is finally and fully restored, it appears it will be even more glorious and more amazing than it ever could have otherwise been. 

This is evidence that the many prophecies of Israel's restoration and messiah sitting upon the throne in Jerusalem are still in force. We should expect these promises to be fulfilled. 

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