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Romans 2:9-11

Verses covered in this passage:

  • Romans 2:9
  • Romans 2:10
  • Romans 2:11

The Apostle Paul writes to the world-renowned believers in Rome, the center of the world at that time, in order to answer a slanderous charge made to them against Paul and his message. Paul’s detractors claim his emphasis on faith overturns the law. Paul says that ” just living by the law” does not achieve personal justice before God, while “just living by faith” does. Paul then demonstrates what a just life looks like: harmonious living with Jesus as the leader. Paul also makes clear the choice a believer has: to walk in faith and the power of the resurrection and experience resurrection life, or walk in sin and unnecessarily experience the negative consequences.


Paul refutes the slander from competing Jewish “authorities” and makes clear that doing what is right pleases God, whereas simply asserting we are right or judging others for being wrong does not. What matters is faith: trusting and doing what God asks. What does not matter is religious labels or practice (if it varies from God’s way).


As believers, we have the choice to follow God and pursue His will, thus storing rewards, glory, and honor for us in heaven. Or, we can do the opposite and incur tribulation and distress on our soul.

2:9 is a continuation of 2:8 and should be considered together. The Greek word translated tribulation here is thlipsis, which is also translated “affliction.” The word translated anguish is stenochoria, also rendered “distress.” Both words are used by the Apostle Paul in 2 Corinthians 6:3-5 to describe difficult circumstances he encountered such as imprisonment, beatings, and anxious and difficult circumstances. So it seems clear there will be discomfort at the judgment seat of Jesus for selfish ambition, which is the characteristic being evaluated from 2:8, or evil deeds as here in 2:9. This discomfort clearly applies to all humanity, Jews as well as Greeks, believers as well as unbelievers.

This can also be observed in passages such as 1 Corinthians 3:12-17 where the Apostle Paul states to the Corinthian believers that any of them who builds on the foundation of Jesus Christ with wood, hay, or straw will see those things burned up in the fire of Jesus’s judgment, and if everything is burned up this person will be “saved, yet though as through fire.” This is contrasted with the positive reward from building with gold or precious stones—deeds that fire refines and makes more precious. Clearly, eternal judgment related to eternal destiny is not in question, for the gifts and calling of God are irrevocable (as we shall learn in 11:29). However, the deeds we do on earth will only receive lasting glory and honor from God (verse 7) if we serve others. The process of judgment will be, for a time, highly discomforting for many.

Historically, Christianity has, in the main, held that our time on earth is a time of purification, and necessary for preparation to live in a perfect world where all sorrow ends. C. S. Lewis reflected that entering eternity with lessons not learned would make us unprepared to fully enjoy eternity. We aren’t told much about how this will operate, and speculation on this topic has historically led to much dispute (and more than a little manipulation). However, it is made abundantly clear throughout scripture that any suffering or discomfort we endure here on earth will be positively repaid many times over at the judgment of Jesus, in ways we can barely imagine, and any comfort we offer ourselves on earth through selfish ambition will bring a discomfort many times greater than whatever we avoided on earth. Jesus Himself referred to this many times, such as in Matthew 19:29 where He says anything we give up in this earthly life to serve Him, He will repay “a hundredfold.” An earthly investor could only dream of an investment that would return a hundred times the original investment, but this is the norm in God’s spiritual economy.

Referring once again to the theme verse of Romans 1:16-17, the just life lived by faith is not only the best life to live in this present world, as it avoids the adverse consequences of 1:18-32, it is also the life that will benefit us most for eternity. The word translated “soul” here is the Greek word psuche, which is translated “life” about half the time and “soul” the other half, and simply means a living human.

There are three primary Greek root words translated “life” (noun) or “live” (verb):

Psuche: the root for our word psyche appears 105 times in scripture and is translated “soul” about half the time and “life” the other half (occasionally along with “mind” or “heart”). Depending on context it refers to our time on earth or an aspect of the human makeup that includes our conscious reality.

Bios: the root for our word biology is translated life, living and “good” and is used to refer to the means and activities of living, like our word “livelihood” – the activities by which we stay alive and derive meaning from daily existence (Example 1 John 2:16).

Zoe: the root of our word zoology and zoo is almost always translated “life” and refers to the quality of life experience, the quality of our spiritual experience of life (Example: John 3:16).

Continuing the sentence beginning in 2:5, Paul repeats the notion of a positive reward for living a life pointed at pleasing God by living a life of service to others. In 2:7 the reward is eternal life, a life experience that is completely fulfilling (eternal life is a gift when received as well as a reward when experienced, as made clear in Galatians 6:8 and Timothy 6:12). Here the reward is glory, honor, and peace from God. In 2:7 glory and honor from God is what a believer is seeking to obtain by patiently continuing to do good, in verse 10 glory and honor is bestowed, along with peace.

There is a difference between 2:7 and 2:10 that is also interesting. In 2:7 the believer seeks glory and honor from God along with “immortality” or “incorruption.” In 2:10 God grants His glory and honor but in place of immortality, “peace.” This is the same word used by Jesus in John 14:27 where He pronounces His peace upon the disciples in place of fear. Since Paul tells us to approach the Judgment of Christ with great fear (as in 2 Corinthians 5:10-11), it is of great comfort to know that one of the rewards for a life lived for God is His peace.

Loving and serving others is a lot of trouble, and requires a daily sacrifice of setting aside self. In 2:5-10 God makes abundantly clear that such living not only avoids extremely negative consequences that attend a self-seeking life, but also accumulates eternal benefits that transcend anything we can even imagine.

In 2:10 the Apostle Paul makes clear that every human will stand before God and be judged for the deeds he or she did while on earth, and uses the phrase “to the Jew first and also to the Greek.” This seems to indicate the Jews will be judged first. However, the main point here is that everyone will be judged using the same approach. God will not play favorites. In fact, Jesus states in Luke 13:48 that to whom much is given, much will be required. So, since the Jews have much, as we shall see in 3:1-3, their standard might be higher. But God will not play favorites, even so.

Biblical Text

9 There will be tribulation and distress for every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek, 10 but glory and honor and peace to everyone who does good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 11 For there is no partiality with God.

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