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Timeline: The Final 24 Hours of the Life of Jesus

THE DISCIPLES’ PASSOVER ERRAND

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 14
ROMAN DAY:  THURSDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: MORNING
LOCATION: BETHANY & JERUSALEM

 1. The Disciples approach Jesus about the Passover. He sends Peter and John to prepare it.
(Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13)

THE LAST SEDER

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 14-15
ROMAN DAY:  THURSDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: EVENING
LOCATION: THE UPPER ROOM IN JERUSALEM

2. Jesus and the Disciples arrive at the Upper Room.
(Mark 14:17; Luke 22:14)

3. Jesus washes the Disciples’ feet.
(John 13:3-17)

4. Jesus announces that one of the disciples will betray Him.
(John 13:18-21)

5. The Seder officially begins.
(Matthew 26:20; Luke 22:14)

6. Jesus announces that He has longed to eat this Passover with them.
(Luke 22:15-16)

7. Jesus blesses the first cup of wine.
(Luke 22:17-18)

8. Jesus breaks bread and identifies Himself as the Unleavened Bread.
(Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19)

9. Jesus announces a second time that one of the twelve will betray Him. This troubles the disciples. Jesus identifies Judas as His betrayer, but the disciples do not understand this until afterward. Judas then leaves to betray Jesus. This set in motion the events that will lead to Jesus’s execution.
(Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:17-21; Luke 22:21-23; John 13:21-30)

Note: When Judas came to the priests on the night of Passover, they were likely surprised, greatly alarmed, and mostly unprepared to seize and condemn Him that night. They hastily scrambled to do whatever it took to kill Jesus before rumors of their conspiracy leaked. The events that followed were driven by hatred and fear, and were disorganized, confused, and illegal.

10. Jesus pours a second (or more) cup of wine and identifies Himself as the Passover Lamb.
(Matthew 26:27-28; Mark 14:23-24; Luke 22:20)

11. Jesus pours a third (or more) cup of wine and says that He will not drink it until He is with the disciples again in the Kingdom.
(Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25)

 

UPPER ROOM DISCOURSE

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  THURSDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: AFTER SUNSET (AND AFTER THE SEDER)
LOCATION: THE UPPER ROOM IN JERUSALEM

12. The Disciples Argue about who is the Greatest.
(Luke 22:24)

13. Jesus Reminds them about True Greatness and Discusses His Kingdom.
(Luke 22:25-29)

14. Jesus tells them about His command to Love one another.
(John 13:31-35)

15. Jesus informs Peter that Satan has demanded to sift him like wheat, but that He has prayed for Peter so that when he turns back to Jesus, he will encourage his brothers.
(Luke 22:31)

16. Jesus Informs Peter that he will Deny Him (the first time).
(Luke 22:32; John 13:36)

17. Peter Promises that he would die for Jesus (the first time).
(Luke 22:33; John 13:38)

18. Jesus tells Peter he will deny Him three times (the first time).
(Luke 22:34; John 13:38)

19. Jesus informs the Disciples that He is going on a Journey. They Question Him and He answers them with multiple assurances and admonitions.
(John 14, also Luke 22:35-38)

20. Jesus and the Disciples sing Hymns and Depart for the Mount of Olives.
(Matthew 26:30; Mark 14:26; Luke 22:39; John 14:31)

FINAL PROPHECIES AND INSTRUCTIONS SHARED ALONG THE WAY TO THE MOUNT OF OLIVES (GETHSEMANE)

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  THURSDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: NIGHTTIME
LOCATION: THE STREETS OF JERUSALEM & BEYOND THE GATES

21. Jesus Announces that all the Disciples will Abandon Him.
(Matthew 26:31; Mark 14:27)

22. Jesus tells them to meet Him in Galilee after He is Raised.
(Matthew 26:32; Mark 14:28)

23. Peter Promises (likely a second time) that He Would Never Deny Jesus.
(Matthew 26:33,35; Mark 14:29, 31)

24. Jesus Reminds Peter (likely a second time) that He will Deny Him three times.
(Matthew 26:34; Mark 14:28)

25. Jesus Teaches that He is the Vine and the Disciples are the Branches.
(John 15:1-11)

26. Jesus Reminds the Disciples to Love one another as He has loved them.
(John 15:12-17)

27. Jesus reminds the Disciples that the world will hate them as it has hated Him.
(John 15:18-25)

28. Jesus promises to send the Holy Spirit.
(John 15:26 – 16:15)

29. Jesus predicts His death and resurrection and promises His disciples that everything will turn out for the good.
(John 16:16-33)

30. Jesus prays for His Disciples’ protection and sanctification, and for Believers to have unity and to share in His glory.
(John 17)

 

PRAYING IN THE GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  THURSDAY-FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: NIGHTTIME
LOCATION: THE GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE

31. Jesus asks the Disciples to enter the Garden of Gethsemane. He asks them to keep watch and pray.
(Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:40; John 18:1)

32. Jesus Goes further into the Garden to Pray and takes Peter, James, and John with Him. (Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33; Luke 22:41)

33. Jesus’s soul is greatly troubled. He asks God to take the cup from Him, but He wants to do His Father’s will. An angel attends Him.
(Matthew 26:37-39, 42; Mark 14:33-36; Luke 22:42-44)

34. The Disciples keep falling asleep. Jesus twice awakens them.
(Matthew 26:40, 43-44; Mark 14:37-40)

35. Jesus awakens His disciples a third time and informs them that He has been betrayed.
(Matthew 26:45-46; Mark 14:41-42; Luke 22:45-46)

 

JESUS’S ARREST

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: AFTER MIDNIGHT?
LOCATION: THE GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE

36. Judas leads a group of Jews from the chief priests to where Jesus was in order to arrest Him. They are armed with a Roman escort. Judas betrays Jesus with a kiss.
(Matthew 26:47-50; Mark 14:43-46; Luke 22:47-48; John 18:2-3)

37. Jesus asks whom the armed crowd seeks. They answer: “Jesus the Nazarene.” Jesus responds: “I am He,” and they fall to the ground. He asks them this a second time, and when they answer, Jesus tells them that He is the One they seek and that they should let the others go.
(John 18:4-9)

38. Peter attacks those who have come to arrest Jesus and cuts off the ear of Malchus, the servant of the High Priest. Jesus miraculously heals it and reprimands Peter.
(Matthew 26:51-54; Mark 14:47; Luke 22:49-51; John 18:10-11)

39. Jesus submits to arrest, while the Disciples run away.
(Matthew 26:55-56; Mark 14:48-52; Luke 22:52-53; John 18:12)

 

JESUS’S PRELIMINARY TRIAL
(1st Religious Trial)

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: DARK MORNING HOURS
LOCATION: JERUSALEM—THE HOUSE OF ANNAS

40. Jesus is rushed to the house of Annas where He is interrogated and abused.
(John 18:13, 19-24)

41. Peter and another disciple follow Jesus. Peter denies being His disciple the first time.
(Matthew 26:58, 69-70; Mark 14:54, 66-68; Luke 22:54-57; John 18:15-18)

JESUS’S NIGHT-TIME TRIBUNAL

(2nd Religious Trial)

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: DARK MORNING HOURS
LOCATION: JERUSALEM—THE HOUSE OF CAIAPHAS

42. Jesus is brought to Caiaphas, the sitting high priest, where He is falsely accused of many things before the Sanhedrin. When it appeared that the council would not be able to substantiate a charge, Caiaphas intervenes and stages an occasion for Jesus to commit “Blasphemy.” He is charged swiftly and condemned.
(Matthew 26:57, 59-66; Mark 14:53-64; John 18:24)

43. The priests, elders, scribes, and officers abuse and mock Jesus.
(Matthew 26:67-68; Mark 14:55-65; John 18:24)

44. Peter denies being Jesus’s disciple the second and third time. Jesus looks at Peter as a rooster crows and Peter runs away bitterly.(Matthew 26:71-75; Mark 14:68-72; Luke 22:58-62; John 18:14-18)

JUDAS’S REMORSE

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: PRE-DAWN LIGHT
LOCATION: JERUSALEM—THE TEMPLE DISTRICT & VALLEY OF HINNOM

45. Judas regrets his decision and tries to undo it by returning the Bribe money to the priests. They do not accept it. He throws it at their feet and bitterly runs away.
(Matthew 27:3-5) 

46. Judas hangs himself. His body bursts open upon its fall.
(Matthew 27:5; Acts 1:18-19)

JESUS’S SUNRISE TRIAL BEFORE THE SANHEDRIN
(3rd Religious Trial)

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: FIRST SIGNS OF LIGHT
LOCATION: JERUSALEM—THE CHAMBER OF HEWN STONES – TEMPLE MOUNT

47. As soon as it is declared to be dawn, the religious council—the Sanhedrin—confers in their council chamber to officially convict Jesus of blasphemy.
(Matthew 27:1; Mark 15:1; Luke 22:66-71)

 

JESUS’S ARRAIGNMENT BEFORE PILATE
(1st Phase of Civil Trial)

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: DAWN-EARLY MORNING HOURS
LOCATION: JERUSALEM – THE PRAETORIUM

48. The priests send Jesus to the Roman Prefect, Pilate, before whom they accuse Jesus of insurrection and claim He deserves to be executed.
(Matthew 27:2; Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1-2; John 18:28-32)

49. Pilate investigates these accusations by personally interviewing Jesus with the Praetorium, but he finds no guilt in Him.
(Matthew 27:11-14; Mark 15:2-5; Luke 23:3-4; John 18:33-38)

50. Pilate declares Jesus’s innocence to His accusers, and they protest. Jesus is silent. When Pilate learns that Jesus is a Galilean, he sends Him to Herod who was also in Jerusalem at that time.
(Luke 23:4-7)

JESUS’S AUDIENCE BEFORE HEROD ANTIPAS
(2nd Phase of Civil Trial)

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: DAWN-EARLY MORNING HOURS
LOCATION: JERUSALEM – HEROD’S PALACE

51. Jesus is silent before Herod Antipas, whose initial excitement fades when He does not perform a miracle on demand. After dressing Him as a pretend King, Herod returns Jesus to Pilate.
(Luke 23:8-12)

 

PILATE’S JUDGMENT
(3rd Phase of Civil Trial)

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: EARLY MORNING HOURS
LOCATION: JERUSALEM – THE PRAETORIUM

52. When the trial reconvenes at the Praetorium, Pilate reaffirms Jesus’s innocence to the gathering crowd. Knowing they won’t like this verdict, the governor promises to punish Jesus before releasing Him. This extraordinary gesture is Pilate’s first attempt to release Jesus.
(Luke 23:13-16)

53. The priests balk at Pilate’s offer. Pilate addresses the wider crowd the first time by countering that he will use his customary “Passover Pardon” to release Jesus—“the King of the Jews.” (Matthew, Mark, and Luke interject to explain this custom). The “Passover Pardon” is Pilate’s second attempt to release Jesus.
(Matthew 27:15-16; Mark 15:6-9; Luke 23:17; John 18:39)

54, Pilate’s wife warns Pilate about her troubling dream.
(Matthew 27:19)

55. The chief priests and elders persuade the crowd to ask Pilate to release Barabbas instead.
(Matthew 27:20; Mark 15:11)

56. When Pilate offers the crowd the choice to release Jesus or Barabbas, at the persuasion of the priests, the crowd chooses Barabbas. Surprised at their response, Pilate asks them what he wants them to do to the King of the Jews. The crowd answers “Crucify Him!”
(Matthew 27:17-18, 21-22; Mark 15:11-13; Luke 23:18-21; John 18:39-40)

57. Surprised by their response but still wanting to release Jesus, Pilate has Jesus scourged, hoping that the brutal punishment of a Man declared to be innocent will satisfy the crowd. The Roman legionnaires beat and mock Him as a king by putting a robe over Him and pressing a crown of thorns onto his head.
(Matthew 27:27-31; Mark 15:16-20a; Luke 23:20-22; John 19:1-3)

58. Pilate presents the bloodied, pitiable King Jesus to the Jews: “Behold the Man” and redeclares His innocence, but the crowds persist. At this point the Jews introduce a new charge—the charge of Blasphemy, and insist that He must die because He pretended to be the Son of God. This troubles Pilate.
(Luke 23:23; John 19:4-8)

59. Exasperated, Pilate investigates and interviews Jesus a second time inside the Praetorium. Jesus remains silent as Pilate desperately tries to find a reason to release Him. When Pilate threatens Jesus with his power, Jesus calmly reminds the governor where his authority and ultimate accountability reside.
(John 19:9-11)

60. Pilate makes efforts to release Jesus a fourth time, which the crowds ignore. Instead, the crowd puts Pilate into a diabolical dilemma: forcing him to choose between following Roman law and releasing Jesus or being branded an enemy of Caesar by releasing Him. Not wishing the trial to drag out any further, Pilate sits down upon the judgment seat to bring things to a close.
(Luke 23:23; John 19:12-13)

61. Pilate puts the Jews in a dilemma of their own, when he says “Behold, your King” as he presents Jesus. He knew it would be distasteful to the Jews to acknowledge Jesus as their King, but if they denied that He was their King, then they would functionally agree with Pilate that He was innocent of the charges. Rather than do either, they choose to commit blasphemy by declaring “We have no King but Caesar,” in their efforts to have Jesus crucified. This was Pilate’s fifth attempt to release Jesus.
(Luke 23:23; John 19:14-15)

62. Pilate sees that there is nothing he can do to convince the crowd, and that a riot is starting. In a final appeal to release Jesus, or in effort to acquit himself of the sin he was about to commit, Pilate publicly washes his hands before the crowd and declares his innocence. All the people, who sense that Pilate is ready to give them what they want declare: “His blood shall be on us and on our children!”
(Matthew 27:24-25; Luke 23:23)

63. Pilate relents. He releases Barabbas and orders Jesus to be crucified.
(Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15; Luke 23:24-25; John 19:16)

CRUCIFIXION ROUTE

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: MIDMORNING
LOCATION: THE STREETS OF JERUSALEM—OUTSIDE THE CITY GATES

64. The Romans lead Jesus toward the place of execution, carrying His cross.
(Matthew 27:31, 31; Mark 15:20b; Luke 23:26a; John 19:17)

65. Simon of Cyrene is pressed into carrying Jesus’s cross, possibly because Jesus is too weakened to carry it Himself.
(Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26)

66. Jesus tells the women weeping for Him to instead weep for their own children.
(Luke 23:27-31)

 

CRUCIFIXION

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: THIRD HOUR—NINTH HOUR (9:00AM—3:00PM)
LOCATION: GOLGOTHA (OUTSIDE OF JERUSALEM)

67. Upon arriving at Golgotha, Jesus is offered wine and vinegar to dull the pain. He refuses it.
(Matthew 27:33-34; Mark 15:22-23; Luke 23:33a; John 19:17)

68. Jesus is crucified between two criminals. His crime: “This is Jesus, The King of the Jews,” is written on a board posted to His cross.
(Matthew 27:37-38; Mark 15:27; Luke 23:33; John 19:18-19)

69. Jesus recites the phrase: “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.”
(Luke 23:34a)

70. Jesus’s clothes are divided according to lots by the Roman soldiers.
(Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34b; John 19:23-25a)

71. Jesus is mocked by religious scoffers, His executioners, and even the criminals being put to death beside Him. One criminal repents and Jesus assures him that he will be with Him in Paradise.
(Matthew 27:38-44; Mark 15:27-32; Luke 23:35-43)

72. Jesus asks His disciple, John, to take care of His mother after He is gone.
(John 19:25b-27)

73. At noon, Darkness falls upon the entire land and lasts until the ninth hour.
(Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44)

74. At the ninth hour, Jesus cries out, “My God, My God, Why have you forsaken Me?”
(Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34)

75. Jesus says, “I’m thirsty.” He is offered a sponge of sour wine. He receives it.
(Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:35-36a; John 19:30)

76. Jesus says, “It is finished.”
(John 19:30b)

77. Jesus cries out in a loud voice, “Father, into Your hands I commit My Spirit” and dies. (Matthew 27:50; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46; John 19:30c)

78. The veil in the temple is torn from top to bottom. The earth shakes. Dead saints are raised.
(Matthew 27:51-53; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45b)

79. The Centurion standing guard confesses that Jesus was the Son of God.
(Matthew 27:54; Mark 15:39; Luke 23:47)

80. Jesus’s followers, who were looking on from a distance, along with the women who came with Him to the cross, are devastated. Their friend, the Messiah, is dead.
(Matthew 27:55-56; Mark 15:40-41; Luke 23:48-49)

81. Jesus’s corpse is pierced by a spear. Blood and water pour out of His body.
(John 19:31-34)

 

BURIAL OF JESUS’S BODY

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 15
ROMAN DAY:  FRIDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: LATE AFTERNOON
LOCATION: THE STREETS OF JERUSALEM—OUTSIDE THE CITY GATES

82. Joseph of Arimathea gets permission from Pilate to take Jesus’s body down from the cross and bury it in a nearby tomb.
(Matthew 27:57-58; Mark 15:43-45; Luke 23:50-52; John 19:38)

83. Jesus’s body is hastily taken down and prepared with burial spices and laid in the tomb.
(Matthew 27:59-60; Mark 15:46; Luke 23:53-56a; John 19:39-42)

84. Jesus’s tomb is sealed with a large stone.
(Matthew 27:60-61; Mark 15:46-47)

 

SABBATH

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 16
ROMAN DAY:  SATURDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: SUNSET TO SUNRISE
LOCATION: JERUSALEM—THE PRAETORIUM & JESUS’S TOMB OUTSIDE THE CITY WALLS

85. Sometime that evening, or the next morning, the Chief Priests and Pharisees ask Pilate to post a guard to secure Jesus’s grave, lest His disciples steal the body and begin a rumor that He came back to life as Jesus predicted. Pilate grants their request in full.
(Matthew 27:62-66)

86. Jesus’s body remains entombed on the Sabbath
(Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:1a; Luke 23:56b)

RESURRECTION

JEWISH DATE: NISAN 17
ROMAN DAY:  SUNDAY
APPROXIMATE TIME: EARLY IN THE MORNING
LOCATION: THE STREETS OF JERUSALEM—OUTSIDE THE CITY GATES

87. Early on the morning after the Sabbath, the women go to better prepare Jesus’s body for burial. They are greeted by angels who tell them Jesus has risen and is alive.
(Matthew 28:1-7; Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24:1-7; John 20:1)

88. The Women and Mary Magdalene see the Risen Lord.
(Matthew 28:8-9; Mark 16:9; John 20:11-18)

89. Peter and John run to the tomb to investigate after the women share with them about what they encountered.
(Mark 16:10-11; Luke 24:8-12; John 20:2-10)

90. That evening, Jesus appears to two disciples on the Road to Emmaus.
(Mark 16:12; Luke 24:13-34)

91. Jesus appears to the disciples (minus Thomas) that evening.
(Luke 24:36-49; John 20:19-23)




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